Please refer to the individual Workshop Topics for recommended references with respect to specific topic.

Books on Beaver

The Beaver: Its Life and Impact. By Dietland Muller-Schwarze

'The Beaver: Its Life and Impact is designed to satisfy the curiosity and answer the questions of anyone with an interest in these animals, from students who enjoy watching beaver ponds at nature centers to homeowners and land managers. Color and black-and-white photographs document every aspect of beaver behavior and biology, the variety of their constructions, and the habitats that depend on their presence.' - Cornell University Press

  • Hood GA. 2011. The Beaver Manifesto. Rocky Mountain Books: Toranto, Canada, 130 pp. - An excellent new book targeted at lay audiences that lays out much of the rationale for partnering with beaver in conservation and restoration efforts.

  • Enos Mills' (1913) 'In Beaver World' is a classic filled with great anecdotal accounts of beaver. You can download a PDF for free form

Other Bibliographies

EndNote Database of Beaver Bibliography

This includes PDFs for some (27 not all) of the 440 references shown below. The EndNote file is in a *.enl format and the PDFs are included in a PDF subfolder (they link automatically from EndNote). If you don't have EndNote, you can still access the PDFs.

Beaver Bibliography

This is an unsorted listing of of over 440 references on beaver. 

Albert S and Trimble T. 2000. Beavers are partners in riparian restoration on the Zuni Indian Reservation. Ecological Restoration. 18(2): 87-92.

Allen A. 1983. Habitat suitability index models: Beaver. Biological Report FWS/OBS-82/10.30, US Fish and Wildlife Service, Fort Colins, CO. Available:

 Allers D and Culik BM. 1997. Energy requirements of beavers (Castor canadensis) swimming underwater. Physiological Zoology. 70(4): 456-463.

AlmquistJacobson H and Sanger D. 1995. Holocene climate and vegetation in the Milford drainage basin, Maine, USA, and their implications for human history. Vegetation History and Archaeobotany. 4(4): 211-222.

Andersen DC and Shafroth PB. 2010. Beaver dams, hydrological thresholds, and controlled floods as a management tool in a desert riverine ecosystem, Bill Williams River, Arizona. Ecohydrology. 3(3): 325-338. DOI: 10.1002/eco.113.

Andersen DC, Shafroth PB, Pritekel CM and O’Neill MW. 2011. Managed Flood Effects on Beaver Pond Habitat in a Desert Riverine Ecosystem, Bill Williams River, Arizona USA. Wetlands. 31(2): 195-206. DOI: 10.1007/s13157-011-0154-y.

Anderson C, Griffith C, Rosemond A, Rozzi R and Dollenz O. 2006a. The effects of invasive North American beavers on riparian plant communities in Cape Horn, ChileDo exotic beavers engineer differently in sub-Antarctic ecosystems? Biological Conservation. 128(4): 467-474. DOI: 10.1016/j.biocon.2005.10.011.

Anderson CB, Pastur GM, Lencinas MV, Wallem PK, Moorman MC and Rosemond AD. 2009. Do introduced North American beavers Castor canadensis engineer differently in southern South America? An overview with implications for restoration. Mammal Review. 39(1): 33-52. DOI: Doi 10.1111/J.1365-2907.2008.00136.X.

Anderson CB and Rosemond AD. 2007. Ecosystem engineering by invasive exotic beavers reduces in-stream diversity and enhances ecosystem function in Cape Horn, Chile. Oecologia. 154(1): 141-153. DOI: Doi 10.1007/S00442-007-0757-4.

Anderson CB, Rozzi R, Torres-Mura JC, McGehee SM, Sherriffs MF, Schuettler E and Rosemond AD. 2006c. Exotic vertebrate fauna in the remote and pristine sub-antarctic Cape Horn Archipelago, Chile. Biodiversity and Conservation. 15(10): 3295-3313. DOI: Doi 10.1007/S10531-005-0605-Y.

Anderson WI, Schlafer DH and Vesely KR. 1989. Thyroid Follicular Carcinoma with Pulmonary Metastases in a Beaver (Castor-Canadensis). Journal of Wildlife Diseases. 25(4): 599-600.

Apple L, Johnson R, Ziebell C, Paton D, Ffolliott P and Hamre R. 1985a. Riparian habitat restoration and beavers.

Apple L, Smith B, Dunder J and Baker B. 1985b. The use of beavers for riparian/aquatic habitat restoration of cold desert, gully-cut stream systems in southwestern Wyoming. Investigations on beavers. 4: 123.

Arjo WM, Joos RE, Kochanny CO, Harper JL, Nolte DL and Bergman DL. 2008. Assessment of transmitter models to monitor beaver Castor canadensis and C. fiber populations. Wildlife Biology. 14(3): 309-317.

Aznar JC and Desrochers A. 2008. Building for the future: Abandoned beaver ponds promote bird diversity. Ecoscience. 15(2): 250-257. DOI: Doi 10.2980/15-2-3107.

2004. Bailey JK, Schweitzer JA, Rehill BJ, Lindroth RL, Martinsen GD and Whitham TG. BEAVERS AS MOLECULAR GENETICISTS: A GENETIC BASIS TO THE FORAGING OF AN ECOSYSTEM ENGINEER. Ecology. 85(3): 603-608. DOI: 10.1890/03-3049.

Bailey JK and Whitham TG. 2006. Interactions between cottonwood and beavers positively affect sawfly abundance. Ecological Entomology. 31(4): 294-297. DOI: Doi 10.1111/J.1365-2311.2006.00774.X.

Baker BW. 2006. Efficacy of tail-mounted transmitters for beaver. Wildlife Society Bulletin. 34(1): 218-222.

Baker BW and Cade BS. 1995. Predicting Biomass of Beaver Food from Willow Stem Diameters. Journal of Range Management. 48(4): 322-326.

Baker BW, Ducharme HC, Mitchell DCS, Stanley TR and Peinetti HR. 2005. Interaction of beaver and elk herbivory reduces standing crop of willow. Ecological Applications. 15(1): 110-118.

Baker BW and Hill EP. 2003. Beaver (Castor Canadensis). Feldhamer GA, Thompson BC and Chapman JA (Eds), Wild Mammals of North America: Biology, Mangement and Conservation. The Johns Hopkins University Press: Baltimore, Maryland, pp. 288-310. DOI:

Barnes DM. 2005. Possible tool use by Beavers, Castor canadensis, in a northern Ontario watershed. Canadian Field-Naturalist. 119(3): 441-443.

Barnes DM and Mallik AU. 1996. Use of woody plants in construction of beaver dams in northern Ontario. Canadian Journal of Zoology-Revue Canadienne De Zoologie. 74(9): 1781-1786.

Barnes DM and Mallik AU. 1997. Habitat factors influencing beaver dam establishment in a northern Ontario watershed. Journal of Wildlife Management. 61(4): 1371-1377.

Barnes DM and Mallik AU. 2001. Effects of Beaver, Castor canadensis, herbivory on streamside vegetation in a northern Ontario watershed. Canadian Field-Naturalist. 115(1): 9-21.

Basey JM and Jenkins SH. 1995. Influences of predation risk and energy maximization on food selection by beavers (Castor canadensis). Canadian Journal of Zoology-Revue Canadienne De Zoologie. 73(12): 2197-2208.

Baskin LM and Novoselova NS. 2008. A fear of predators as a factor determining the length of feeding routes in beavers. Zoologichesky Zhurnal. 87(2): 226-230.

Beck JL, Dauwalter DC, Gerow KG and Hayward GD. 2009. Design to monitor trend in abundance and presence of American beaver (Castor canadensis) at the national forest scale. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. 164(1-4): 463-479. DOI: 10.1007/s10661-009-0907-8.

Beechie TJ, Pollock MM and Baker S. 2008. Channel incision, evolution and potential recovery in the Walla Walla and Tucannon River basins, northwestern USA. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms. 33(5): 784-800. DOI: 10.1002/esp.1578.

Benhamou S. 1998. Home range in terrestrial mammals. Revue D Ecologie-La Terre Et La Vie. 53(4): 309-335.

Bertolo A and Magnan P. 2006. Spatial and environmental correlates of fish community structure in Canadian Shield lakes. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences. 63(12): 2780-2792. DOI: Doi 10.1139/F06-161.

Bertolo A, Magnan P and Plante M. 2008. Linking the occurrence of brook trout with isolation and extinction in small Boreal Shield lakes. Freshwater Biology. 53(2): 304-321. DOI: Doi 10.1111/J.1365-2427.2007.01895.X.

Bhat MG, Huffaker RG and Lenhart SM. 1993. Controlling Forest Damage by Dispersive Beaver Populations - Centralized Optimal Management Strategy. Ecological Applications. 3(3): 518-530.

Bigler W, Butler DR and Dixon RW. 2001. Beaver-pond sequence morphology and sedimentation in northwestern Montana. Physical Geography. 22(6): 531-540.

Bilyeu DM, Cooper DJ and Hobbs NT. 2008. Water tables constrain height recovery of willow on Yellowstone's northern range. Ecological Applications. 18(1): 80-92.

Bird B, O’Brien M and Peterson. M. 2011. Beaver and Climate Change Adaptation in North America: A Simple, Cost-Effective Strategy for the National Forest System, WildEarth Guardians, Grand Canyon Trust, & The Lands Council 56 pp. Available:


Bisaillon A. 1982. Anatomy of the Heart in the North-American Beaver (Castor-Canadensis). Anatomischer Anzeiger. 151(4): 381-391.

Bloomquist CK and Nielsen CK. 2009. A Remote Videography System for Monitoring Beavers. Journal of Wildlife Management. 73(4): 605-608. DOI: 10.2193/2008-200.

Boudreau REA, Galloway JM, Patterson RT, Kumar A and Michel FA. 2005. A paleolimnological record of Holocene climate and environmental change in the Temagami region, northeastern Ontario. Journal of Paleolimnology. 33(4): 445-461. DOI: Doi 10.1007/S10933-004-7616-7.

Bovet J. 1994. Missed Opportunities in the Study of Activity and Body-Temperature of Beaver (Castor Canadensis) - Comment. Canadian Journal of Zoology-Revue Canadienne De Zoologie. 72(3): 567-569.

Bovet J. 2005. The maleness of male beavers: A response to Margot Francis. Journal of Historical Sociology. 18(1-2): 122-124.

Boyle S and Owen S. 2007. North American Beaver (Castor canadensis): A Technical Conservation Assessment, Prepared for USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Region, Montrose, CO. Available:


Breck SW and Gaynor JS. 2003. Comparison of isoflurane and sevoflurane for anesthesia in beaver. Journal of Wildlife Diseases. 39(2): 387-392.

Breck SW, Wilson KR and Andersen DC. 2001. The demographic response of bank-dwelling beavers to flow regulation: a comparison on the Green and Yampa rivers. Canadian Journal of Zoology-Revue Canadienne De Zoologie. 79(11): 1957-1964.

Breck SW, Wilson KR and Andersen DC. 2003a. Beaver herbivory and its effect on cottonwood trees: Influence of flooding along matched regulated and unregulated rivers. River Research and Applications. 19(1): 43-58. DOI: Doi 10.1002/Rra.696.

Breck SW, Wilson KR and Andersen DC. 2003b. Beaver herbivory of willow under two flow regimes: A comparative study on the green and Yampa Rivers. Western North American Naturalist. 63(4): 463-471.

Broschart MR, Johnston CA and Naiman RJ. 1989. Predicting Beaver Colony Density in Boreal Landscapes. Journal of Wildlife Management. 53(4): 929-934.

Brzyski JR and Schulte BA. 2009. Beaver (Castor canadensis) Impacts on Herbaceous and Woody Vegetation in Southeastern Georgia. American Midland Naturalist. 162(1): 74-86.

Buckley M, Souhlas T, Niemi E, Warren E and Reich S. 2011. The Economic Value of Beaver Ecosystem Services: Escalante River Basin, Utah, ECO Northwest, Eugene, OR, 65 pp. Available:


Buech RR. 1984. Ontogeny and Diurnal Cycle of Fecal Reingestion in the North-American Beaver (Castor-Canadensis). Journal of Mammalogy. 65(2): 347-350.

Buech RR. 1995. Sex differences in behavior of beavers living in near-boreal lake habitat. Canadian Journal of Zoology-Revue Canadienne De Zoologie. 73(11): 2133-2143.

Burchsted D, Daniels M, Thorson R and Vokoun J. 2010. The River Discontinuum: Applying Beaver Modifications to Baseline Conditions for Restoration of Forested Headwaters. Bioscience. 60(11): 908-922. DOI: 10.1525/bio.2010.60.11.7.

Burdock GA. 2007. Safety assessment of castoreum extract as a food ingredient. International Journal of Toxicology. 26(1): 51-55. DOI: Doi 10.1080/10915810601120145.

Busher PE. 1996. Food caching behavior of beavers (Castor canadensis): Selection and use of woody species. American Midland Naturalist. 135(2): 343-348.

Butler D and Malanson G. 2005a. The geomorphic influences of beaver dams and failures of beaver dams. Geomorphology. 71(1-2): 48-60. DOI: 10.1016/j.geomorph.2004.08.016.

Butler DR. 2006. Human-induced changes in animal populations and distributions, and the subsequent effects on fluvial systems. Geomorphology. 79(3-4): 448-459.

Butler DR and Malanson GP. 1994. Beaver Landforms. Canadian Geographer / Le Géographe canadien. 38(1): 76-79. DOI: 10.1111/j.1541-0064.1994.tb01519.x.

Butler DR and Malanson GP. 1995a. SEDIMENTATION-RATES AND PATTERNS IN BEAVER PONDS IN A MOUNTAIN ENVIRONMENT, 255-269 pp. Available: <Go to ISI>://A1995RW29500017.


Butler DR and Malanson GP. 1995b. Sedimentation-Rates and Patterns in Beaver Ponds in a Mountain Environment. Geomorphology. 13(1-4): 255-269.

Butler DR and Malanson GP. 2005b. The geomorphic influences of beaver dams and failures of beaver dams. Geomorphology. 71(1-2): 48-60. DOI: 10.1016/j.geomorph.2004.08.016.

Butts WL. 1986. Changes in Local Mosquito Fauna Following Beaver (Castor-Canadensis) Activity. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association. 2(3): 300-304.

Butts WL. 1992. Changes in Local Mosquito Fauna Following Beaver (Castor, Canadensis) Activity - an Update. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association. 8(3): 331-332.

Butts WL. 2004. Changes in distribution and abundance of mosquito populations in an ecological research tract over a 35-year period. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association. 20(3): 319-320.

Campbell KL, McIntyre IW and MacArthur RA. 1999. Fasting metabolism and thermoregulatory competence of the star-nosed mole, Condylura cristata (Talpidae : Condylurinae). Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology a-Molecular and Integrative Physiology. 123(3): 293-298.

Chandler RB, King DI and DeStefano S. 2009. Scrub-Shrub Bird Habitat Associations at Multiple Spatial Scales in Beaver Meadows in Massachusetts. Auk. 126(1): 186-197. DOI: Doi 10.1525/Auk.2009.08083.

Chavez AS and Gese EM. 2005. Food habits of wolves in relation to livestock depredations in northwestern Minnesota. American Midland Naturalist. 154(1): 253-263.

Chilelli ME, Griffith B and Harrison DJ. 1996. Interstate comparisons of river otter harvest data. Wildlife Society Bulletin. 24(2): 238-246.

Chu HJ and Jiang ZG. 2009. Distribution and conservation of the Sino-Mongolian beaver Castor fiber birulai in China. Oryx. 43(2): 197-202. DOI: Doi 10.1017/S0030605308002056.

Chubbs TE and Phillips FR. 1994. Long-Distance Movement of a Transplanted Beaver, Castor-Canadensis, in Labrador. Canadian Field-Naturalist. 108(3): 366-366.

Cirmo CP and Driscoll CT. 1993. Beaver Pond Biogeochemistry - Acid Neutralizing Capacity Generation in a Headwater Wetland. Wetlands. 13(4): 277-292.

Cirmo CP and Driscoll CT. 1996. The impacts of a watershed CaCO3 treatment on stream and wetland biogeochemistry in the Adirondack Mountains. Biogeochemistry. 32(3): 265-297.

Clifford HF, Wiley GM and Casey RJ. 1993. Macroinvertebrates of a Beaver-Altered Boreal Stream of Alberta, Canada, with Special Reference to the Fauna on the Dams. Canadian Journal of Zoology-Revue Canadienne De Zoologie. 71(7): 1439-1447.

Clulow FV, Mirka MA, Dave NK and Lim TP. 1991. Ra-226 and Other Radionuclides in Water, Vegetation, and Tissues of Beavers (Castor-Canadensis) from a Watershed Containing U-Tailings near Elliot Lake, Canada. Environmental Pollution. 69(4): 277-310.

Cole CA, Cirmo CP, Wardrop DH, Brooks RP and Peterson-Smith J. 2008. Transferability of an HGM wetland classification scheme to a longitudinal gradient of the central Appalachian Mountains: Initial hydrological results. Wetlands. 28(2): 439-449.

Collen P and Gibson RJ. 2001. The general ecology of beavers (Castor spp.), as related to their influence on stream ecosystems and riparian habitats, and the subsequent effects on fish - a review. Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries. 10(4): 439-461.

Cooke HA and Zack S. 2008. Influence of Beaver Dam Density on Riparian Areas and Riparian Birds in Shrubsteppe of Wyoming. Western North American Naturalist. 68(3): 365-373.

Correll DL, Jordan TE and Weller DE. 2000. Beaver pond biogeochemical effects in the Maryland Coastal Plain. Biogeochemistry. 49(3): 217-239.

Cowell DW. 1984. The Canadian Beaver, Castor-Canadensis, as a Geomorphic Agent in Karst Terrain. Canadian Field-Naturalist. 98(2): 227-230.

Crawford J, Liu Z, Nelson T, Nielsen C and Bloomquist C. 2008a. Isolation and characterization of microsatellite loci in the beaver (Castor canadensis). Molecular Ecology Resources. 8(3): 616-618. DOI: Doi 10.1111/J.1471-8286.2007.02016.X.

Crawford JC, Liu Z, Nelson TA, Nielsen CK and Bloomquist CK. 2008b. A Comparison of Field and Molecular Techniques for Sexing Beavers. Journal of Wildlife Management. 72(8): 1805-1807. DOI: Doi 10.2193/2007-375.

Crawford JC, Liu ZW, Nelson TA, Nielsen CK and Bloomquist CK. 2009. Genetic Population Structure within and between Beaver (Castor Canadensis) Populations in Illinois. Journal of Mammalogy. 90(2): 373-379.

Crawford JC, Liu ZW, Nelson TA, Nielsen CK and Blooniquist CK. 2008c. Microsatellite analysis of mating and kinship in beavers (Castor canadensis). Journal of Mammalogy. 89(3): 575-581.

Cullen CL. 2003. Normal ocular features, conjunctival microflora and intraocular pressure in the Canadian beaver (Castor canadensis). Veterinary Ophthalmology. 6(4): 279-284.

Cunningham JM, Calhoun AJK and Glanz WE. 2006. Patterns of beaver colonization and wetland change in Acadia National Park. Northeastern Naturalist. 13(4): 583-596.

Cunningham JM, Calhoun AJK and Glanz WE. 2007. Pond-breeding amphibian species richness and habitat selection in a beaver-modified landscape. Journal of Wildlife Management. 71(8): 2517-2526. DOI: Doi 10.2193/2006-510.

Curtis PD and Jensen PG. 2004. Habitat features affecting beaver occupancy along roadsides in New York state. Journal of Wildlife Management. 68(2): 278-287.

Danilov P, Kan'shiev VY and Fedorov FV. 2008. European (Castor fiber) and Canadian (Castor canadensis) beavers from the Russian North-West. Zoologichesky Zhurnal. 87(3): 348-360.

DeBano LF and Heede BH. 1987. ENHANCEMENT OF RIPARIAN ECOSYSTEMS WITH CHANNEL STRUCTURES. JAWRA Journal of the American Water Resources Association. 23(3): 463-470. DOI: 10.1111/j.1752-1688.1987.tb00824.x.

DeGraaf RM and Yamasaki M. 2003. Options for managing early-successional forest and shrubland bird habitats in the northeastern United States. Forest Ecology and Management. 185(1-2): 179-191. DOI: Doi 10.1016/S0378-1127(03)00254-8.

Demmer R and Beschta RL. 2008. Recent History (1988-2004) of Beaver Dams along Bridge Creek in Central Oregon. Northwest Science. 82(4): 309-318. DOI: 10.3955/0029-344X-82.4.309.

DeStefano S, Koenen KKG, Henner CM and Strules J. 2006. Transition to independence by subadult beavers (Castor canadensis) in an unexploited, exponentially growing population. Journal of Zoology. 269(4): 434-441. DOI: Doi 10.1111/J.1469-7998.2006.00160.X.

Devito KJ and Dillon PJ. 1993. Importance of Runoff and Winter Anoxia to the P and N Dynamics of a Beaver Pond. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences. 50(10): 2222-2234.

Diefenderfer HL and Montgomery DR. 2009. Pool Spacing, Channel Morphology, and the Restoration of Tidal Forested Wetlands of the Columbia River, USA. Restoration Ecology. 17(1): 158-168. DOI: Doi 10.1111/J.1526-100x.2008.00449.X.

Dieter CD. 1992. Population Characteristics of Beavers in Eastern South-Dakota. American Midland Naturalist. 128(1): 191-196.

Dillon PJ, Molot LA and Scheider WA. 1991. Phosphorus and Nitrogen Export from Forested Stream Catchments in Central Ontario. Journal of Environmental Quality. 20(4): 857-864.

Donkor NT and Fryxell JM. 1999. Impact of beaver foraging on structure of lowland boreal forests of Algonquin Provincial Park, Ontario. Forest Ecology and Management. 118(1-3): 83-92.

Donkor NT and Fryxell JM. 2000. Lowland boreal forests characterization in Algonquin Provincial Park relative to beaver (Castor canadensis) foraging and edaphic factors. Plant Ecology. 148(1): 1-12.

Doucet CM and Ball JP. 1994. Analysis of Digestion Data - Apparent and True Digestibilities of Foods Eaten by Beavers. American Midland Naturalist. 132(2): 239-247.

Doucet CM and Fryxell JM. 1993. The Effect of Nutritional Quality on Forage Preference by Beavers. Oikos. 67(2): 201-208.

Dungan Smith J, Edward AJ and Kiyoko M. 2007. Beaver, willow shrubs, and floods, Plant Disturbance Ecology. Academic Press: Burlington, pp. 603-671. DOI:

Dunlap BG and Thies ML. 2002. Giardia in beaver (Castor canadensis) and nutria (Myocastor coypus) from east Texas. Journal of Parasitology. 88(6): 1254-1258.

Dyck AP and Macarthur RA. 1992. Seasonal Patterns of Body-Temperature and Activity in Free-Ranging Beaver (Castor-Canadensis). Canadian Journal of Zoology-Revue Canadienne De Zoologie. 70(9): 1668-1672.

Dyck AP and Macarthur RA. 1993a. Daily Energy-Requirements of Beaver (Castor-Canadensis) in a Simulated Winter Microhabitat. Canadian Journal of Zoology-Revue Canadienne De Zoologie. 71(10): 2131-2135.

Dyck AP and Macarthur RA. 1993b. Seasonal-Variation in the Microclimate and Gas-Composition of Beaver Lodges in a Boreal Environment. Journal of Mammalogy. 74(1): 180-188.

Eisele PH, Faith TL, Menth PM, Parker JC and vanVuren DH. 1997. Ketamine-isoflurane combination anesthesia for surgical implantation of intraperitoneal radio transmitters in the beaver. Contemporary Topics in Laboratory Animal Science. 36(1): 97-99.

Elsey RM and Kinler N. 1996. Range extension of the American beaver, Castor canadensis, in Louisiana. Southwestern Naturalist. 41(1): 91-93.

Engelhart A and Mullerschwarze D. 1995. Responses of Beaver (Castor Canadensis Kuhl) to Predator Chemicals. Journal of Chemical Ecology. 21(9): 1349-1364.

Fayer R, Santin M, Trout JM, DeStefano S, Koenen K and Kaur T. 2006. Prevalence of microsporidia, Cryptosporidium spp., and Giardia spp. in beavers (Castor canadensis) in Massachusetts. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine. 37(4): 492-497.

Feller MC. 2005. Forest harvesting and streamwater inorganic chemistry in western North America: A review. Journal of the American Water Resources Association. 41(4): 785-811.

Feyen L, Ribeiro PJ, Gomez-Hernandez JJ, Beven KJ and De Smedt F. 2003. Bayesian methodology for stochastic capture zone delineation incorporating transmissivity measurements and hydraulic head observations. Journal of Hydrology. 271(1-4): 156-170.

Ffolliott PF, Clary WP and Larson FR. 1976. Observations of Beaver Activity in an Extreme Environment. The Southwestern Naturalist. 21(1): 131-133.

FHA. 1972. FESWMS-2DH Finite Element Surface-Water Modeling System Users Manual, U.S. Department of Transportation: Federal Highway Administration.

Fischer JR, Lewis-Weis LA, Tate CM, Gaydos JK, Gerhold RW and Poppenga RH. 2006. Avian vacuolar myelinopathy outbreaks at a southeastern reservoir. Journal of Wildlife Diseases. 42(3): 501-510.

Fischer TV. 1985. The Subplacenta of the Beaver (Castor-Canadensis). Placenta. 6(4): 311-321.

Forbes GJ and Theberge JB. 1996. Response by wolves to prey variation in central Ontario. Canadian Journal of Zoology-Revue Canadienne De Zoologie. 74(8): 1511-1520.

Ford TE and Naiman RJ. 1988. Alteration of Carbon Cycling by Beaver - Methane Evasion Rates from Boreal Forest Streams and Rivers. Canadian Journal of Zoology-Revue Canadienne De Zoologie. 66(2): 529-533.

Forzan MJ and Frasca S. 2004. Systemic toxoplasmosis in a five-month-old beaver, (Castor canadensis). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine. 35(1): 113-115.

Fox-Dobbs K, Bump JK, Peterson RO, Fox DL and Koch PL. 2007. Carnivore-specific stable isotope variables and variation in the foraging ecology of modern and ancient wolf populations: case studies from Isle Royale, Minnesota, and La Brea. Canadian Journal of Zoology-Revue Canadienne De Zoologie. 85(4): 458-471. DOI: Doi 10.1139/Z07-018.

France RL. 1997. The importance of beaver lodges in structuring littoral communities in boreal headwater lakes. Canadian Journal of Zoology-Revue Canadienne De Zoologie. 75(7): 1009-1013.

France RL. 2000. Beaver alter stable carbon isotope ratios of benthic particulate organic matter. Hydrobiologia. 441(1-3): 237-240.

Francis MM, Naiman RJ and Melillo JM. 1985. Nitrogen-Fixation in Subarctic Streams Influenced by Beaver (Castor-Canadensis). Hydrobiologia. 121(3): 193-202.

Frey JK and Malaney JL. 2009. Decline of the Meadow Jumping Mouse (Zapus Hudsonius Luteus) in Two Mountain Ranges in New Mexico. Southwestern Naturalist. 54(1): 31-44.

Frohnauer NK, Pierce CL and Kallemeyn LW. 2007a. Population dynamics and angler exploitation of the unique muskellunge population in Shoepack Lake, Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota. North American Journal of Fisheries Management. 27(1): 63-76. DOI: Doi 10.1577/M05-142.1.

Frohnauer NK, Pierce CL and Kallemeyn LW. 2007b. Simulated effects of recruitment variability, exploitation, and reduced habitat area on the muskellunge population in Shoepack Lake, Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota. North American Journal of Fisheries Management. 27(1): 77-88. DOI: Doi 10.1577/M05-143.1.

Fryxell JM. 1992. Space Use by Beavers in Relation to Resource Abundance. Oikos. 64(3): 474-478.

Fryxell JM. 2001. Habitat suitability and source-sink dynamics of beavers. Journal of Animal Ecology. 70(2): 310-316.

Fryxell JM and Doucet CM. 1991. Provisioning Time and Central-Place Foraging in Beavers. Canadian Journal of Zoology-Revue Canadienne De Zoologie. 69(5): 1308-1313.

Fryxell JM and Doucet CM. 1993a. Diet Choice and the Functional-Response of Beavers. Ecology. 74(5): 1297-1306.

Fryxell JM and Doucet CM. 1993b. Diet Choice and the Functional Response of Beavers. Ecology. 74(5): 1298-1306.

Fryxell JM, Vamosi SM, Walton RA and Doucet CM. 1994. Retention Time and the Functional-Response of Beavers. Oikos. 71(2): 207-214.

Fuller TK and Markl JA. 1987. Beaver, Castor-Canadensis, Colony Density in the Bearville Study Area, Northcentral Minnesota. Canadian Field-Naturalist. 101(4): 597-598.

Fustec J. 2003. Beaver lodge location on the upstream Loire River. Comptes Rendus Biologies. 326: 192-199. DOI: 10.1016/s1631-0691(03)00057-x.

Fustec J, Lode T, Le Jacques D and Cormier JP. 2001. Colonization, riparian habitat selection and home range size in a reintroduced population of European beavers in the Loire. Freshwater Biology. 46(10): 1361-1371.

Gabrys G and Wazna A. 2003. Subspecies of the European beaver Castor fiber Linnaeus, 1758. Acta Theriologica. 48(4): 433-439.

Gainer R and Smith K. 1985. Mineralization of Subcutaneous Tissue in Beaver, Castor-Canadensis. Canadian Field-Naturalist. 99(4): 535-536.

Gallant D, Berube CH, Tremblay E and Vasseur L. 2004. An extensive study of the foraging ecology of beavers (Castor canadensis) in relation to habitat quality. Canadian Journal of Zoology-Revue Canadienne De Zoologie. 82(6): 922-933. DOI: Doi 10.1139/Z04-067.

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